The Alkanes

Alkane structural Isomers

For Example:

C4H10 has two possible structural formulae:

1) Find the longest chain of carbons. This doesn't have to be a straight line - it can go around corners, as long as it follows the carbon chain. This is the constituent chain and goes on the end of the name. In the above example the longest possible chain is 3 (either a horizontal line or the one at the top, bottom middle then either bottom left or right). This number then names the isomer: e.g. three carbons means that the name of this ends with propane.
2) Using the longest chain, identify any branching out from it. In the above isomer there is just one branch - this branches off the second carbon from either end (if the numbers from either end were different, the lowest would be taken). The branch consists of just one carbon, or a methyl group.
3) The table below contains the names of the groups with more carbons in them:

Shapes of Alkanes

Alkane characteristics

Melting and Boiling points of Alkanes

Oxidation of Alkanes

Molecular and Empirical Formula of Alkanes

Useful books for revision:

Revise AS Chemistry for Salters (Written by experienced examiners and teachers of Salter's chemistry)
Revise AS Chemistry for Salters (OCR) (Salters Advanced Chemistry)